Em auswahl

em auswahl

Jan. Der EM-Kader in der Analyse. Christian Prokop auf das Kollektiv setzen, denn große internationale Stars hat die DHB-Auswahl nicht. Wieder. Aug. Welche Korbjägerinnen bei der Europameisterschaft im litauischen Kaunas dabei sein werden, das gab DBB-Bundestrainer Pierre Hohn am. Der DFB will sich als Ausrichter der EM-Endrunde bewerben. In zehn Stadien soll gespielt werden. potjesdrinken.nu zeigt, welche der 14 Bewerber Zusagen.

His family were all Lutheran Protestants in the Evangelical Church of Prussia , which since included both Calvinist and Lutheran parishioners.

Paul was proud of his family and could trace ancestors back to True to family tradition his father supported his family as an infantry officer, he retired as a major.

In the summer they visited his grandfather at the Hindenburg estate of Neudeck in East Prussia. Graduates entering the army were presented to King William I, who asked for their father's name and rank.

He became a second lieutenant in the Third Regiment of Foot Guards. When the Austro-Prussian War of broke out Hindenburg wrote his parents: For the soldier war is the normal state of things…If I fall, it is the most honorable and beautiful death".

Quickly regaining his senses, he wrapped his head in a towel and resumed leading his detachment, winning a decoration. After weeks of marching, the Guards attacked the village of Saint Privat near Metz.

Climbing a gentle slope, they came under heavy fire from the superior French rifles. After four hours the Prussian artillery came up to blast the French lines while the infantry, filled with the "holy lust of battle, " [6] swept through the French lines.

His regiment suffered casualties, and he became regimental adjutant. The Guards were spectators at the Battle of Sedan and for the following months sat in the siege lines surrounding Paris.

He was his regiment's elected representative at the Palace of Versailles when the German Empire was proclaimed on 18 January ; he was an impressive figure: In he passed in the highly competitive entrance examination for admission to the Kriegsakademie in Berlin [8] After three years study his grades were high enough for appointment to the General Staff.

He was promoted to captain in and assigned to the staff of the Second Army Corps. He married the intelligent and accomplished Gertrud von Sperling — by whom he had two daughters, Irmengard Pauline and Annemaria and one son, Oskar Next he commanded an infantry company, in which his men were ethnic Poles.

He was transferred in to the General Staff and was promoted to major. His section was led by Count Alfred von Schlieffen , a noted student of encirclement battles like Cannae , whose famous Schlieffen Plan proposed to pocket the French Army.

For five years Hindenburg also taught tactics at the Krieg-akademie. He learned the topography of the lakes and sand barrens of East Prussia during the annual Great General Staff's ride in The following year he moved to the War Ministry, to write the field service regulations on field-engineering and on the use of heavy artillery in field engagements — both were used during the First World War.

He became a lieutenant-colonel in and two year later was promoted to colonel commanding an infantry regiment. He became chief of staff of the Eight Army Corps in He was given command of a division in as a major-general equivalent to a British and US brigadier general in ; in he was promoted to lieutenant general major-general.

Five years later he was made commander of the Fourth Army Corps based in Magdeburg as a General of the Infantry lieutenant-general.

The German equivalent to four-star rank was Colonel-General. The annual maneuvers taught him how to maneuver a large force; in he defeated a corps commanded by the kaiser.

When the war broke out, Hindenburg was retired in Hanover. Hoffman informed them of his plans to shift part of the 8th Army south [14] to attack the exposed left flank of the advancing Russian Second Army.

In Hindenburg's words, the line of soldiers that was defending Germany's border against the advancing Second Army were "thin, but not weak", because the men were defending their homes.

Ultimately, Russian losses amounted to the capture of 92, Russians and another 78, killed or wounded [20] while German casualties numbered only 14, According to British Field Marshal Edmund Ironside it was the "greatest defeat suffered by any of the combatants during the war".

Hindenburg's tactics spurned head-on attacks all along the front in favor of schwerpunkts , sharp, localized hammer blows. In the first six weeks of the war the Russians had lost more than , men.

Hindenburg saw his job clearly: Despite their strikingly dissimilar temperaments, Ludendorff was a perfect fit; as Hindenburg wrote to the Kaiser a few months later: On the east bank of the Vistula in Poland the Russians were mobilizing new armies which were shielded from attack by the river; once assembled they would cross the river to march west into German Silesia.

To counter this threat, the supreme commander and Prussian War Minister Erich von Falkenhayn , who had superseded Moltke, formed a new Ninth Army , which joined Hindenburg's command.

Although his 16 divisions faced 60 Russian, he advanced into Poland to occupy the west bank of the Vistula. When the Russians attempted to cross the Vistula , the Germans held firm, but the Russians were able to cross in the Austro-Hungarian sector.

Hindenburg faced adversity with "God be with us, I can do no more! Once the Russians repaired the railways they would be in position to push into Silesia , so Hindenburg re-positioned to strike their flank by moving Ninth Army by rail north to Thorn and reinforcing it with two corps from Eighth Army.

The most celebrated tribute to Hindenburg during the war was a 12m tall wooden likeness erected in Berlin. What admirers paid to drive in nails — ultimately 30 tons of them —went to war widows.

Smaller versions were erected throughout Germany. He reportedly had a good sense of humor and often made jokes at his own expense. According to the Kaiser, "Hindenburg never said more than half of what he really thought".

After a painting was completed Hindenburg would periodically check on how many printed reproductions had been sold. Vogel was with him throughout the war and did his last portrait in Protecting his warrior image, Hindenburg wrote in his memoir that "the artists were a distraction [with which] we would have preferred to dispense".

Hindenburg argued that the still miserably equipped Russians — some only carried spears — in the huge Polish salient were in a trap in which they could be snared in a cauldron by a southward pincer from East Prussia and a northward pincer from Galicia, using motor vehicles for speed, [39] even though the Russians outnumbered the Germans by three to one.

From Hindenburg's point of view, such an overwhelming triumph could end the war in the Eastern Front. In retaliation, Falkenhayn reassigned some of Hindenburg's forces to a new army group under Prince Leopold of Bavaria and transferring Ludendorff to a new joint German and Austro-Hungarian Southern Army.

Hindenburg and Ludendorff reacted by threatening to resign thereby resulting in Ludendorff's reinstatement under Hindenburg's command.

Meanwhile, the Russians were inexorably pushing from Galicia toward Hungary through the Carpathian passes. Under orders from Falkenhayn to contain the resurgent Russians, Hindenburg mounted an unsuccessful attack in Poland with his Ninth Army as well as an offensive by his newly formed Tenth Army which made only local gains.

Following these setbacks, he set up temporary headquarters at Insterburg , and made plans to eliminate the Russians' remaining toehold in East Prussia.

In the ensuing assault, the Germans would ensnare the Russians in a pincer movement between the Tenth Army in the north and Eighth Army in the south between his Tenth Army in the north and Eighth Army in the south.

The attack was launched on 7 February, they encircled an entire corps and captured more than , men in the Second Battle of the Masurian Lakes , afterwards pulling back to strong defensible positions, against which still more Russians were sacrificed.

To drive the Russians out of the Carpathian passes the Austro-Hungarians proposed a joint strike on the Russian right flank.

German heavy artillery was brought east: Mackensen had more than heavy guns, while his foes had 4 —the Russian's heavy guns were immobilized in fortresses.

For weeks he continued to steamroller forward, his entire front stepping forward shoulder to shoulder eastward across Galicia, his guns smashing through hastily constructed Russian lines.

Hindenburg was to pressure the Russians in the north. He moved headquarters to Lötzen , near the eastern boundary of East Prussia.

Three cavalry divisions swept east into Courland , the barren, sandy region near the Baltic coast, in one of the war's most successful cavalry actions.

The cavalry's gains were held by Hindenburg's new Nieman army, named after the river. Ludendorff, furious with dictated tactics and because they were prohibited from pressing on in Courland , sat on his hands.

They broke through the Russian lines after a brief, but intense bombardment directed by Lieutenant Colonel Georg Bruchmüller , an artillery genius recalled from medical retirement.

One-third of the opposing Russian First Army were casualties in the first five hours. The Russians withdrew until they sheltered behind the Narev River.

However, steamroller frontal attacks cost dearly: Eighty thousand Russians remained in the great fortress that guarded the city, Novogeorgievsk , expecting to hold out for months, but Falkenhayn brought up heavy artillery and they capitulated in days, losing guns.

Step by step the Russians withdrew from the Polish salient: On 1 July both the Nieman and Tenth Armies thrust spear heads into Courland, attempting to pocket the defenders, but they were foiled by the prudent commander of the Fifth Russian Army who defied orders by pulling back into defensible positions shielding Riga.

It fell on 17 August, along with 1, guns and almost 1 million shells. On 5 August his forces were consolidated into Army Group Hindenburg, which took the city of Grodno after bitter street fighting, but the retreating defenders could not be trapped because the wretched rail lines lacked the capacity to bring up the needed men.

They occupied Vilnus on 18 September, then halted on ground favorable for a defensive line. On 7 October Austro-Hungarian and German troops in Army Group Mackensen invaded Serbia , capturing Belgrade , and then eastern Serbia was invaded by the Bulgarians , who were promised substantial territorial gains; they had fine men but had lost many officers in the Balkan Wars.

Falkenhayn had rejected advice that the Bulgarians should attack further south, to try to encircle the Serbs. By 4 December the remaining Serbian troops had escaped into Albania.

In October Hindenburg moved headquarters to Kovno. A Hindenburg son-in-law, who was a reserve officer and a legal expert, joined the staff to write a new legal code.

During , , Germans were killed in the east, , in the west. Russia rebounded by adding two million men to their army. They were equipped with three million rifles, 6, machine guns, and 6, pieces of field artillery.

Their infantry advanced despite heavy snow on the date promised to their allies, day after day failing to breach the defenses, while the battlefield thawed into a marsh in which they lost nearly , soldiers.

Four armies commanded by General Aleksei Brusilov on 4 June attacked entrenchments that the Austro-Hungarians regarded as impregnable.

In nine days they captured more than , men and guns, and pushed into open country. Austro-Hungarian troops were rushed back from the Italian Front.

Every man was needed in the west, so German troops on the Eastern Front had to be shifted south to plug the gap.

Ober Ost desperately shored up weak points with defenders stripped from less threatened positions. Ludendorff was so distraught on the phone to OHL that General Wilhelm Groener who directed the army's railroads and had been a competitor with Ludendorff on the General Staff was sent to evaluate his nerves, which were judged satisfactory.

On 16 July the Russians attacked the German lines west of Riga, where again they were thwarted by a stout defense. General von Eichhorn took over Army Group Hindenburg, while Hindenburg and Ludendorff, on a staff train equipped with the most advanced communication apparatus, visited their new forces.

At threatened points they formed mixed German and Austro-Hungarian units and other Austro-Hungarian formations were bolstered by a sprinkling of German officers.

The derelict citadel of the Brest Fortress was refurbished as their headquarters. The Russians then struck on Brusilov's right with their best troops, the Guards Army , and the heaviest artillery concentration yet seen on the Eastern Front.

Their military maps were sketchy, because they had never planned to fight so deep in their own territory, so the Guards were sent to advance through a swamp; in a week they lost 80 percent of their men.

Further south Brusilov did better, penetrating a few kilometers into Hungary, but when the front stabilized the Russians faced new fortifications dug and wired on the German pattern.

Officers were exchanged between the German and Austro-Hungarian armies for training. In the west, the Germans were hemorrhaging in the battles of Verdun and the Somme.

Influential OHL officers, led by the artillery expert Lieutenant Colonel Max Bauer , a friend of Ludendorff's, lobbied against Falkenhayn, deploring his futile steamroller at Verdun and his inflexible defense along the Somme, where he packed troops into the front-line to be battered by the hail of shells and sacked commanders who lost their front-line trench.

German leaders contrasted Falkenhayn's bludgeon with Hindenburg's deft parrying. Thus emboldened, Romania declared war against Austro-Hungary on 27 August, adding , trained enemies who invaded Hungarian Transylvania.

Falkenhayn had been adamant that Romania would remain neutral. Henceforth, Ludendorff became the public face of OHL: The eastern front was commanded by Leopold of Bavaria, with Hoffmann as his chief of staff.

Hindenburg was also appointed as Supreme War Commander of the armies of the Central Powers, with nominal control of six million men.

The British were unimpressed: Hindenburg and Ludendorff visited the Western Front in September, meeting the Army commanders and their staffs as well as their leaders: Both crown princes, with Prussian chiefs of staff, commanded Army Groups.

Rupprecht and Albrecht were presented with field marshal's batons. Hindenburg told them that they must stand on the defensive until Romania was dealt with, meanwhile defensive tactics must be improved — ideas were welcome.

Ludendorff promised more arms. The Entente supported Romania by attacking from Macedonia , but were repelled. Mackensen seized the Romanian forts on the right bank of the Danube, while infantry and cavalry from the Western Front reinforced the Ninth Army in Hungarian Transylvania , which now was commanded by Falkenhayn another of Hindenburg's prudent selections.

In a month, he defeated the Romanian invaders at Hermannstadt and then in November thrust into Romania through passes in the Carpathian Mountains , while Mackensen crossed the Danube to cut off their retreat, but the Romanians moved swiftly, they and their Russian reinforcements formed a defensive line in Moldova after Bucharest fell on 6 December British saboteurs had time enough to burn the oil stores and to plug most of the wells.

During the last months of the year the Russians continued vain assaults in Ukraine. In there were three Russian casualties on the Eastern Front for every two from the Central Powers and Russian morale was crumbling: In the autumn, the Entente began to push the Bulgarians back in Macedonia.

OHL issued a Textbook of Defensive Warfare that recommended fewer defenders in the front line relying on light machine guns, if pushed too hard they were permitted to pull back.

Attackers who penetrated the front line entered a battle zone, in which they were machine gunned from scattered emplacements and shelled by the German artillery, who knew the ranges and location of their own strong points.

Then infantry counterattacked, while the attacker's artillery was blind because they were unsure where their own men were. A reserve division was positioned immediately behind the line, if it entered the battle it was commanded by the division whose position had been penetrated.

Mobile defense was also used in World War II. Responsibilities were reassigned to implement the new tactics: Field officers who visited headquarters often were invited to speak with Hindenburg, who inquired about their problems and recommendations.

At this time he was especially curious about the eight man units, [68] which he regarded as " the greatest evidence of the confidence which we placed in the moral and mental powers of our army, down to its smallest unit.

A monthly periodical informed artillery officers about new developments. In the last months of the British battering along the Somme produced fewer German casualties.

Every regiment on the western front created an assault unit of storm troopers selected from their fittest and most aggressive men.

Most cavalry regiments were dismounted and the artillery received their badly needed horses. Then a double creeping barrage led the infantry into the shattered first German lines, where the attackers stopped to repel counterattacks.

Nivelle was given command of the French Army. Hindenburg's day at OHL began at After conferring again with Ludendorff, he heard reports from his departmental heads, met with visitors and worked on correspondence.

At noon Ludendorff gave the situation report to the kaiser, unless an important decision was required when Hindenburg took over.

He lunched with his personal staff, which included a son-in-law who was an Army officer. They left the table to subdivide into informal chatting groups.

After a junior officer summarized the daily reports, he might confer with Ludendorff again before retiring. Ludendorff and Bauer, who knew all the industrialists, set ambitious goals for arms production, in what was called the Hindenburg Programme , which was directed from the War Office by General Groener.

Major goals included a new light machine gun, updated artillery, and motor transport, but no tanks because they considered them too vulnerable to artillery.

To increase output they needed skilled workers. The army released a million men. Hindenburg also wanted the universities closed, except for medical training, so that empty places would not be filled by women.

To swell the next generation of soldiers he wanted contraceptives banned and bachelors taxed. At the funeral Hindenburg met his successor Charles , who was frank about hoping to stop fighting.

In Italy, the line ran from the Swiss border on the west to the Adriatic east of Venice. The Macedonian front extended along the Greek border from the Adriatic to the Aegean.

The line contested by the Russians and Ottomans between the Black and Caspian Sea ran along the heights of the Caucasus mountains.

He urged the Ottomans to pull their men off the heights before winter, but they did not, he believed this was because of their "policy of massacre of the Armenians" [81] and many froze.

The front in Palestine ran from the Mediterranean to the southern end of the Dead Sea, and the defenders of Bagdad had a flank on the Tigris River.

The Western Front ran southward from Belgium until near Laon, where it turned east to pass Verdun before again turning south to end at the Swiss Border.

The remaining German enclaves in Africa were beyond his reach; an attempt to resupply them by dirigible failed.

The Central Powers were surrounded and outnumbered. Strengthening their army would take time: Field guns would have increased from 5, to 6, and heavies from 3, to 4, In the interim the pressure might be reduced if the Navy waged unrestricted submarine warfare , which they claimed would defeat the British in six months.

The chancellor and his camp were opposed, not wanting to bring the United States and other neutrals into the war. After securing the Dutch and Danish borders, Hindenburg announced that unrestricted submarine warfare was imperative and Ludendorff added his shrill voice.

On 9 January the chancellor bowed to their unsound military judgments: OHL moved west to the pleasant spa town of Bad Kreuznach in southwest Germany, which was on a main rail line.

The Kaiser's quarters were in the spa building, staff offices were in the orange court, and the others lived in the hotel buildings. Some effective divisions from the east were exchanged for less competent divisions from the west.

Since their disasters of the previous year the Russian infantry had shown no fight and in March the revolution erupted in Russia. Shunning opportunity, the Central Powers stayed put — Hindenburg feared that invaders would resurrect the heroic resistance of On the Western Front their huge salient between the valley of the Somme and Laon obviously was vulnerable to a pincer attack, which indeed the French were planning.

The new Hindenburg line ran across its base. On 16 March they began Operation Alberich: On 9 April the British attacked. At Arras led by tanks and a creeping barrage, they took the German first and second lines and occupied part of their third while the Canadians swept the Germans completely off the Vimy Ridge.

There was consternation at OHL , their new defense had failed. It was Ludendorff's birthday but he refused to come to the celebratory dinner.

In fact, their new defensive tactics had not been tested, because Sixth Army commander Ludwig von Falkenhausen had packed men in the front line and kept counterattack divisions too far back.

A week later the anticipated French offensive began, driving northward from the Aisne River , after six days of intensive shelling their infantry was led forward by tanks, the first attack by massed tanks.

The attacks ended in early May when many French regiments refused to attack. The Germans never learned the extent of their enemy's demoralization.

The British captured Baghdad on 11 March. The Ottomans had been promised that their empire would be defended, so all their troops in Europe returned home and in May Falkenhayn was appointed to command Army group F comprising two Ottoman armies along with three German infantry battalions with some artillery; to impress the enemy it was called The Asiatic Corps.

Falkenhayn realized it would be difficult to retake Baghdad, so he took over the defense of the Gaza line in Palestine, which the British broke through in November.

The revolutionary Russian government led by Alexander Kerensky remained at war, attacking and pushing back the Austro-Hungarians in Galicia on 1 July.

To counter this success, on 18 July after a hurricane bombardment by batteries directed by Bruchmüller a Schwerpunkt of six German divisions from the west broke a gap in the Russian front, through which they sliced southward toward Tarnopol , thereby threatening to pocket the Russian attackers, who fled to save themselves; many of the demoralized Russian units elected committees to replaced their officers.

At the end of August the advancing Central Powers stopped at the frontier of Moldavia. To keep up the pressure and to seize ground he intended to keep, Hindenburg shifted north to the heavily fortified city of Riga today in Latvia which has the broad Dvina River as a moat.

On 1 September the Eighth Army, led by Oskar von Hutier , attacked; Bruchmüller's bombardment, which included gas and smoke shells, drove the defenders from the far bank east of the city, the Germans crossed in barges and then bridged the river, immediately pressing forward to the Baltic coast, pocketing the defenders of the Riga salient.

Next a joint operation with the navy seized Oesel and two smaller islands in the Gulf of Riga. The Bolshevik revolution took Russia out of the war, an armistice was signed on 16 December.

Hindenburg detested Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg for dragging his feet about total and submarine warfare. Colonel Bauer and the Crown Prince rushed to Berlin to block this peril.

The crisis was resolved when the monarchist parties voted no confidence in Bethmann-Hollweg, who resigned.

Ludendorff and Bauer wanted to replace both the kaiser and chancellor by a dictator, but Hindenburg would not agree. The resolution became advantageous in August when the Pope called for peace.

The German response cited the resolution to finesse specific questions like those about the future of Belgium.

The industrialists opposed Groener's advocacy of an excess profits tax and insistence that workers take a part in company management.

Hindenburg's 70th birthday was celebrated lavishly all over Germany, 2 October was a public holiday, an honor that until then had been reserved only for the Kaiser.

With God's help our German strength has withstood the tremendous attack of our enemies, because we were one, because each gave his all gladly.

So it must stay to the end. Take no thought for what is to be after the war! This only brings despondency into our ranks and strengthens the hopes of the enemy.

Trust that Germany will achieve what she needs to stand there safe for all time, trust that the German oak will be given air and light for its free growth.

Muscles tensed, nerves steeled, eyes front! We see before us the aim: Germany honored, free and great! God will be with us to the end! Bavarian mountain warfare expert von Dellmensingen was sent to assess the Austro-Hungarian defenses in Italy, which he found poor.

Then he scouted for a site from which an attack could be mounted against the Italians. Hindenburg created a new Fourteenth Army with ten Austro-Hungarian and seven German divisions and enough airplanes to control the air, commanded by Otto von Below.

The attack began during the night when the defender's trenches in the valley were abruptly shrouded in a dense cloud of poison gas released from canisters fired simultaneously from simple mortars.

The defenders fled before their masks would fail. The artillery opened fire several hours later, hitting the Italian reinforcements hastening up to fill the gap.

The attackers swept over the almost empty defenses and marched through the pass, while mountain troops cleared the heights on either side. The Italians fled west, too fast to be cut off.

Entente divisions were rushed to Italy to stem the retreat by holding a line on the Piave River. In the negotiations with the Soviet Government, Hindenburg wanted to retain control of all Russian territory that the Central Powers occupied, with German grand dukes ruling Courland and Lithuania , as well as a large slice of Poland.

Their Polish plan was opposed by Foreign Minister Richard von Kühlmann , who encouraged the kaiser to listen to the views of Max Hoffmann, chief of staff on the Eastern Front.

Hoffmann demurred but when ordered argued that it would be a mistake bring so many Slavs into Germany, when only a small slice of Poland was needed to improve defenses.

When the Soviets refused the terms offered at Brest-Litovsk the Germans repudiated the armistice and in a week occupied the Baltic States, Belarus and Ukraine, which had signed the treaty as a separate entity.

Now the Russians signed also. Hindenburg helped to force Kühlmann out in July In January more than half a million workers went on strike, among their demands was a peace without annexations.

The strike collapsed when its leaders were arrested, the labor press suppressed, strikers in the reserve called for active duty, and seven great industrial concerns were taken under military control, which put their workers under martial law.

The Germans were unable to tender a plausible peace offer because OHL insisted on controlling Belgium and retaining the French coalfields. All of the Central Power's cities were on the brink of starvation and their armies were on short rations, Hindenburg realized that "empty stomachs prejudiced all higher impulses and tended to make men indifferent.

Hundreds of thousands of men were needed to hold and police these conquests. More Germans were in Macedonia and in Palestine, where the British were driving north; Falkenhayn was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders , who had led the defense of Gallipoli.

All Hindenburg required was that these fronts stand firm while the Germans won in the west, where now they outnumbered their opponents. He firmly believed that his opponents could be crushed by battlefield defeats regardless of their far superior resources.

Offensive tactics were tailored to the defense. Their opponents were adopting defense in depth.

He would attack the British because they were less skillful than the French. However, winter mud prevented action there until April.

Consequently, their first attack, named Michael, was on the southern part of the British line, at a projecting British salient near Saint-Quentin.

Schwerpunkts would hit on either side of the salient's apex to pocket its defenders, the V Corps, as an overwhelming display of German power.

Additional troops and skilled commanders, like von Hutier, were shifted from the east, Army Group von Gallwitz was formed in the west on 1 February.

One quarter of the western divisions were designated for attack; to counter the elastic defense during the winter each of them attended a four-week course on infiltration tactics.

As always surprise was essential, so the artillery was slipped into attack positions at night, relying on camouflage for concealment; the British aerial photographers were allowed free rein before D-day.

There would be no preliminary registration fire, the gunners were trained for map firing in schools established by Bruchmüller. In the short, intense bombardment each gun fired in a precise sequence, shifting back and forth between different targets, using many gas shells to keep defenders immersed in a toxic cloud.

On D-day, the air force would establish air supremacy and machine gun enemy strong points, also updating commanders on how far the attackers had penetrated.

Signal lamps were used for messaging on the ground. Headquarters moved close to the front and as soon as possible would advance to pre-selected positions in newly occupied ground.

OHL moved to Spa, Belgium while Hindenburg and Ludendorff were closer to the attack at Avesnes, France , which re-awoke his memories of occupied France 41 years before.

Operation Michael struck on 21 March. The first day's reports were inconclusive, but by day two they knew they had broken through some of the enemy artillery lines.

But the encirclement failed because British stoutness gave V Corps time to slip out of the targeted salient. On day four they were moving on into open country when the kaiser prematurely celebrated by pinning the iron cross with sun's rays on Hindenburg's tunic, the first recipient since the medal was created for von Blücher.

South of the salient they had almost destroyed the British Fifth Army, so they pushed west to cut between the French and British Armies, but did not succeed because they advanced too slowly through the thrashed terrain of the former Somme battlefields and the ground devastated when withdrawing the year before and because troops stopped to loot food and clothing — hence they never broke through the Entente's fluid defensive line, manned by troops brought up and supplied by rail and motor transport.

The Allied command was dismayed. What was even more serious was that it was perceived that the enemy's power was due to a thing that cannot be improvised, the training of officers and men.

Prolonging Michael with the drive west delayed and weakened the attack in Flanders. Again they broke through, smashing the Portuguese defenders and forcing the British from all of the ground they had paid so dearly for in However French support enabled the British to save Hazebrouck , the rail junction that was the German goal.

To draw the French reserves away from Flanders, the next attack was along the Aisne River where Nivelle had attacked the year before.

Their success was dazzling. The defender's front was immersed in a gas cloud fired from simple mortars, [] within hours they had reoccupied all the ground the French had taken by weeks of grinding, and they continued to sweep south through Champagne until they halted for resupply at the Marne River.

Hindenburg had lost , of his best men between March and the end of July, while their foe's ranks were swelling with Americans. His dwindling stock of horses were on the verge of starvation and his ragged men thought continually of food.

One of the most effective propaganda handbills the British showered on the German lines listed the rations received by prisoners of war.

His troops bridled at their officer's rations and reports of the ample meals at headquarters, in his memoirs Ludendorff devotes six pages to defending officer's rations and perks.

Tens of thousands of men were skulking behind the lines. Determined to win, he decided to expand the salient pointing toward Paris to strip more defenders from Flanders.

The attack on General Henri Gouraud's French Fourth Army followed the now familiar scenario but was met by a deceptive elastic defense and was decisively repelled at the French main line of resistance.

The German defense was halfhearted. Hindenburg went on the defensive, withdrawing one by one from the salients created by their victories, evacuating their wounded and supplies and retiring to shortened lines.

He hoped to hold a line until their enemies were ready to bargain. Since their retreat from the Marne, Ludendorff had been distraught, shrieking orders and often in tears.

Most disquieting was that some German commanders surrendered their units and that reserves arriving at the front were taunted for prolonging the war.

For Ludendorff Amiens was the "black day in the history of the German Army". His breakdown is not mentioned in Hindenburg's or Ludendorff's memoirs.

On 29 September Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the incredulous kaiser that the war was lost and that they must have an immediate armistice. A new chancellor, Prince Maximilian of Baden , opened negotiations with President Woodrow Wilson , who would deal only with a democratic Germany.

Prince Max told the kaiser that he would resign unless Ludendorff was dismissed, but that Hindenburg was indispensable to hold the army together.

On 26 October the Kaiser slated Ludendorff before curtly accepting his resignation — then rejecting Hindenburg's.

Afterwards, Ludendorff refused to share Hindenburg's limousine. Hindenburg promptly replaced Ludendorff with Groener, now chief of staff of Army Group Kiev , which was assisting a breakaway Ukrainian government to fend off the Bolsheviks while expropriating food and oil.

Another brilliant appointment — a topnotch soldier who had worked with the social democratic politicians who were coming to the fore.

They were losing their allies. On 24 October the Italians crossed the river in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto , after a few days of resolute resistance the defense collapsed, weakened by the defection of men from the empire's subject nations and starvation: In September the Entente and their Greek allies attacked in Macedonia.

The Bulgarians begged for more Germans to stiffen their troops, but Hindenburg had none to spare. Many Bulgarian soldiers deserted as they retreated toward home, opening the road to Constantinople.

The Ottomans were overextended, trying to defend Syria while exploiting the Russian collapse to move into the Caucasus , advancing through Armenia and Georgia intending to take over Muslim lands, despite Hindenburg's urging them to defend what they had.

The British and Arabs broke through in September, capturing Damascus. The Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October.

Wilson insisted that the kaiser must go, but he refused to abdicate, he was determined to lead the Prussian Army home to suppress the growing rebellion , which had started with large demonstrations in major cities and then, when the navy ordered a sortie to battle the British, mutineers led by workers' and soldiers' councils took control of the navy, these councils spread rapidly throughout Germany.

They stripped officers of their badges of rank and decorations, if necessary forcibly. On 8 November Hindenburg told the kaiser that 39 regimental officers had been brought to Spa; where he delivered a situation report and answered questions.

The answers were decisive: The kaiser gave in, superfluously because in Berlin Prince Max had already publicly announced his abdication, his own resignation, and that the Social Democrat leader Friedrich Ebert was now chancellor.

Democracy came abruptly and almost bloodlessly. That evening Groener telephoned Ebert, who he knew and trusted, to tell him that if the new government would fight Bolshevism and support the Army then the field marshal would lead a disciplined army home.

The withdrawal became more fraught when the armistice obliged all German troops to leave Belgium, France and Alsace Lorraine in 14 days and to be behind the Rhine in 30 days.

Stragglers would become prisoners. When the seven men from the executive committee of the soldiers' council formed at Spa arrived at OHL they were greeted politely by a lieutenant colonel, who acknowledged their leadership.

When they broached the march home he took them to the map room, explaining allocation of roads, scheduling unit departures, billeting and feeding.

They agreed that the existing staffs should make these arrangements. They were greeted by the chairman of the workers' and soldiers' council's who proclaimed that: Hindenburg refused because they did not have the kaiser's permission, instead settling into a humble inn, thereby pleasing both his monarchist staff and the revolutionary masses.

In the west 1. Hindenburg did not want to involve the army in the defense of the new government against their civil enemies. Instead they manned independent Freikorps modeled on formations used in the Napoleonic wars , supplying them with weapons and equipment.

In February OHL moved east to Kolberg to mount an offensive against impinging Soviet troops, but they were restrained by the Allied occupation administration, which in May ordered all German troops in the east home.

Hindenburg retired to Hanover [1] once again on 25 June to a splendid new villa, which was a gift of the city, despite admittedly having "lost the greatest war in history".

He failed to win because once through they were too slow—legs could not move quite fast enough. Surprisingly, Hindenburg has undergone a historical metamorphosis: The OHL officers who testified before the Reichstag committee investigating the collapse of agreed that Hindenburg was always in command.

In addition Ludendorff overrated himself, repressing repeated demonstrations that he lacked the backbone essential to command.

Without knocking I entered Ludendorff's office and found him loudly arguing with the field marshal. I assumed it was over the situation at the Seventh Army.

In any case as soon as I entered the field marshall asked me to give my assessment of the situation at the Seventh Army.

I described it in short terms and emphasized especially that based on my own observations I thought the condition of the troops was cause for serious concern.

For the past few days the Seventh Army commanding general, the staff, and I had all been recommending a withdrawal from the increasingly untenable front lines.

I told Hindenburg that I had come to Avesenes with the concurrence of the Seventh Army commanding general to secure such an order.

The field marshall turned to Ludendorff, saying something to the effect of 'Now Ludendorff, make sure that the order goes out immediately.

Hindenburg's record as a commander starting in the field at Tannenberg, then leading four national armies, culminating with breaking the trench deadlock in the west, and then holding his defeated army together, is unmatched by any other soldier in World War I.

However, military skill should not mask the other component of their record: The new republic held its first election on 19 January Parties representing a broad range of different constituencies ran candidates and voting was with proportional representation, so inevitably governments were formed by coalitions of parties: Ebert was elected as provisional chancellor; then the elected representatives assembled in Weimar to write a constitution.

It was based on the Constitution of the German Empire written in , with many of the kaiser's powers now given to a president elected for a term of seven years.

The president selected the chancellor and the members of the cabinet, but with the crucial stipulation that his nominees had to be ratified by the Reichstag , which because of proportional representation required support from several parties.

The constitution was adopted on 11 August Ebert was elected as provisional president. Early in the Allies ordered the German Army to keep troops in Latvia and Lithuania to assist in repelling the Bolsheviks.

The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were written in secret. It was unveiled on 7 May , on the fourth anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania.

It was followed by an ultimatum: While Germans of all political shades cursed the treaty as an insult to the nation's honor, President Ebert was sober enough to consider the possibility that Germany would not be in a position to turn it down.

To save face, he asked Hindenburg whether the army was prepared to defend against an Allied invasion from the west, which Ebert believed would be all but certain if the treaty were voted down.

If there was even the slightest chance that the army could hold out, he promised to urge rejection of the treaty. Under some prodding from his chief of staff, Groener, Hindenburg concluded the army could not resume the war under any circumstances.

Rather than tell Ebert himself, he directed Groener to deliver the army's recommendation to the president.

Back in Hanover, as a field marshal he was provided with a staff who helped with his still extensive correspondence. He made few formal public appearances, but the streets around his house often were crowded with admirers when he took his afternoon walk.

During the war he had left the newspaper reporters to Ludendorff, now he was available. He hunted locally and elsewhere, including an annual chamois hunt in Bavaria.

The yearly Tannenberg memorial celebration kept him in the public eye. A Berlin publisher urged him to produce his memoirs which could educate and inspire by emphasizing his ethical and spiritual values; his story and ideas could be put on paper by a team of anonymous collaborators and the book would be translated immediately for the worldwide market.

Major themes were the need for Germany to maintain a strong military as the school teaching young German men moral values and the need to restore the monarchy, because only under the leadership of the House of Hohenzollern could Germany become great again, with "The conviction that the subordination of the individual to the good of the community was not only a necessity, but a positive blessing He concealed his cultural interests and assured his readers: Hindenburg's son and two son-in-laws came though the war unscathed — Ludendorff had lost two beloved stepsons and Ebert two sons.

The Treaty required the German army to have no more than , men and abolished the General Staff. Therefore, in March The Reichswehr was organized.

The , armed men in Germany competed for the limited places. Super-friendly, easy, efficient and multi-lingual staff, excellent central location right between the main train station and the San Lorenzo Basilica.

If the term "outstanding" can be given, it should be to this hotel. Hotel della Signoria is set in the heart of Florence, a few steps from Piazza della Signoria square and Ponte Vecchio bridge.

Very clean and modern hotel right next to Ponte Vechio. Rooftop breakfast is very nice. See all properties in Florence. Location, staff, cleanliness and comfort.

This hotel provided a great experience from start to finish. Located in Florence, 0. You cannot go wrong staying at Casa Botticelli, beginning with the Hotel Paganini is located in Florence, 1.

THE Bed was so comfortable,the shower was amazing. The staff were so friendly. Brand new and very nicely finished.

Great staff and facilities. Piazza Signoria is feet from the property. Bed nice and comfy Hotel close to all attractions Guests can enjoy the on-site bar and a garden.

Where do I even begin? This place is just stunning! This 2-star hotel has air-conditioned rooms with a private bathroom.

I had a wonderful holiday with my girlfriend staying in this location. Very helpful and welcoming management, brand new rooms and common area, styled in a very nice way, Hotel Dali is located in Florence, yards from Palazzo Vecchio.

This place was perfect. The lady at the front desk was so helpful and friendly. Free WiFi is available throughout. Clean, right in the middle of the hearth of the city.

Very professional staff and keen to help. The room and the breakfast are awesome, and the stuff is kind and helpful. I have never enjoyed a breakfast more in my life!

The view is unbelievable. Hotel is centrally located very close to Duomo and other tourists attractions.

Offering a furnished patio, the Lavagnini Residence is in Florence. It is a minute walk from the Fortezza da Basso congress center.

Very friendly and accommodating had a great time. Featuring panoramic views of Florence and the Arno River, Portrait Firenze offers luxurious rooms with handcrafted furniture.

This hotel is 98 feet from the famous Ponte Vecchio bridge. Ideally located across from the Ponte Vecchio and along the Arno, the hotel provides a calming, Upon arrival we were treated so well by the front desk staff, they were so pleasant and helpful Domux Home Repubblica offers luxurious studio and apartments with free Wi-Fi.

It is on the last floor of the historic Palazzo Levi, important building in Florence's Piazza della Repubblica. I can't say enough great things about this place.

Location is the best in the city, a few meters from Il Duomo. Place enjoys superb panoramic views from its rooftop terrace.

Wonderful boutique hotel from top to bottom!! Attentive staff great coffee!! Al Palazzo del Marchese di Camugliano is set in a 16th-century building with original frescoes and a charming internal garden.

This hotel in Florence has been booked times. Best-known for the stunning Duomo, Florence is full of amazing buildings and its historic center.

The Ponte Vecchio, a 14th-century bridge holding a multitude of shops on its edges is a stunning example and provides a truly unforgettable view.

For great dining, the Santa Croce district has countless options and the unique lampredotto is Florentine fast-food with a year old history.

Many consider the local gelato, Italian ice-cream, to be the best in the world. The beauty and flavours of Florence are just a minute train ride from the Amerigo Vespucci International Airport.

Please enter a valid email address. An error has occurred. Your welcome email will arrive in your inbox soon. Florence is one of the most beautiful historical cities in the World!

Besides the Uffizzi Gallery tne number 1 in Renaissance art ; the sun setting over the Arno, seen from the Piazzalle Michelangelo; the delicious Bisteca Fiorentina; the wonderful galleries of small restaurants and different kinds of food on the first floor balcony of the Central Market open until THe hotel has an incredible location, just 3 minutes walking to Il Duomo and the Batistero!

It is located just in front of the most glamurous street in town: The rooms are beautiful; comfortable and cozy. The hotel staff is wonderful!

Always ready and happy to help, and always with a smile. One thing though you have to be prepared for, if you are coming to Florence downtown by car Parking the hotel indicates a garage service, and your car will be ready just after 30 minutes of a request is expensive.

The city of Florence is very beautiful I will definitely come back with my friends one day. I found a nice hotel in there Hotel Minerva near the church but I bet that is very expensive!!

I am an average traveller on a budget I like hotel not cheap but not expensive. One of our friends met us there and brought us to an Aperifif?

It was just an overnight stay, we were just passing through to go to Pisa, Italy. Florence is beautiful but need more time to enjoy the place, had no chance to visit the museum, but my overall trip was fantastic definitely I will come back one day.

What don't I love about you? As a historian of the Renaissance, I find treasures on every corner. Close to the train station and only a few blocks from the Duomo, this one-star hotel is close to good restaurants and really has all you need.

We had two nights and then drove to Cinque Terre before returning for another 3 nights. We loved the variety of Florence.

There was so much to do. Try hiring cycles and heading to Signa. It's about 10km away along a great bike track alongside the river. Once there you can relax around an outside pool.

You do have to pay but we had a lovely day there. Don't forget your bathing cap though or you'll have to buy one. Obica is a lovely place to dine and reasonably priced.

SO much to say but a lot can be found in guide books or any helpful hotel receptionist will offer suggestions. We stayed at Hotel del Corso with lovely Chiara and then for our return stay we were at the Pendini with a good view of the carousel in the piazza below and also the Duomo a few streets away.

Good for two or three days. Some churches and some other things to visit Be careful that some places are very expensive to visit.

There was one church for example, where I paid 6 euros, entered, and there was just one small room to visit First sunday of the month, some places are free to access such as the Boboli bubble garden.

If you go there on the first sunday, you can save quite a few euros or entrance fee. On the street of Hotel Rex about meters from the hotel on that street, there is a very cheap place to buy magnets for 1 euros, and other souvenirs for 1,2, or 3 euros.

The cheapest place that I have found. Check out Alberto Cozzi for handmade paper products and Peruzzi is definitely the place to go for leather goods.

It's the best if you want to get up close to a sight, jump off for awhile, and then hop on the next bus. Saves a lot in cab expenses. Go to the Piazzale Michelangelo for the best view overlooking all of Florence.

The hotel I stayed at, the Hotel Berchielli, was reasonable in price, has wonderful staff, and a great location 1 block from the Ponte Vecchio. There are lots of stalls everywhere in the city selling everything from tourist souvenirs to leather goods.

However, I would not buy leather goods at any of these places, as I was told by multiple sources, that they came from China and were not made in Italy.

Great vacation, lots to see, and I enjoyed every minute of it. From arrival to departure she has been beyond helpful and accommodating.

We took the upgrade for the upstairs room, and even though you would properly wake early due to sunlight, the rest of my trip in Italy I missed this kind of balcony with this kind of view.

Breakfast on the small patio is a must and do yourself a favor and enjoy a glass of wine and view the city by night.

Staying with Anna has made my experience in Italy so much more pleased and warm. Definitely one of the best finds in Florence! The hotel is in a quite nice area.

The rooms are very clean with a dressing room and a very nice bathroom. Beds are are comfortable. The staff is amazingly friendly and plotted for us all the important attractions on a map that helped us to navigate almost everything in one day.

Breakfast is the best we had in Italy so far as a hotel breakfast. There is a free parking next to the hotel if you are coming by car, we left out car 1 night for free.

Friendly and warm-hearted staff. The breakfast was very delicious and Various. The room was very clean and cozy it is the best experience in the whole trip in Italy.

The friendly staff showed us patiently the way to visit the whole Florence city and the best restaurant. The location was super and it is fast all walking ways to all the beautiful sceneries around.

We would like to have the chance to live in this hotel again in the future. Near to the train station, and central locations.

Many restaurants around the area. Everything was walking distance Breakfast: A variety of food, I stayed in 3 hotels in Italy and this one had the most choices to choose from Bed: Thumbs up for them!

With amazing view of Duomo! Very friendly and helpful Staff. And there's a very delicious ice cream store downstairs!!!

On the Western Front their huge salient between the valley of the Somme and Laon obviously was vulnerable to a pincer attack, which indeed the French were planning.

The new Hindenburg line ran across its base. On 16 March they began Operation Alberich: On 9 April the British attacked. At Arras led by tanks and a creeping barrage, they took the German first and second lines and occupied part of their third while the Canadians swept the Germans completely off the Vimy Ridge.

There was consternation at OHL , their new defense had failed. It was Ludendorff's birthday but he refused to come to the celebratory dinner.

In fact, their new defensive tactics had not been tested, because Sixth Army commander Ludwig von Falkenhausen had packed men in the front line and kept counterattack divisions too far back.

A week later the anticipated French offensive began, driving northward from the Aisne River , after six days of intensive shelling their infantry was led forward by tanks, the first attack by massed tanks.

The attacks ended in early May when many French regiments refused to attack. The Germans never learned the extent of their enemy's demoralization.

The British captured Baghdad on 11 March. The Ottomans had been promised that their empire would be defended, so all their troops in Europe returned home and in May Falkenhayn was appointed to command Army group F comprising two Ottoman armies along with three German infantry battalions with some artillery; to impress the enemy it was called The Asiatic Corps.

Falkenhayn realized it would be difficult to retake Baghdad, so he took over the defense of the Gaza line in Palestine, which the British broke through in November.

The revolutionary Russian government led by Alexander Kerensky remained at war, attacking and pushing back the Austro-Hungarians in Galicia on 1 July.

To counter this success, on 18 July after a hurricane bombardment by batteries directed by Bruchmüller a Schwerpunkt of six German divisions from the west broke a gap in the Russian front, through which they sliced southward toward Tarnopol , thereby threatening to pocket the Russian attackers, who fled to save themselves; many of the demoralized Russian units elected committees to replaced their officers.

At the end of August the advancing Central Powers stopped at the frontier of Moldavia. To keep up the pressure and to seize ground he intended to keep, Hindenburg shifted north to the heavily fortified city of Riga today in Latvia which has the broad Dvina River as a moat.

On 1 September the Eighth Army, led by Oskar von Hutier , attacked; Bruchmüller's bombardment, which included gas and smoke shells, drove the defenders from the far bank east of the city, the Germans crossed in barges and then bridged the river, immediately pressing forward to the Baltic coast, pocketing the defenders of the Riga salient.

Next a joint operation with the navy seized Oesel and two smaller islands in the Gulf of Riga. The Bolshevik revolution took Russia out of the war, an armistice was signed on 16 December.

Hindenburg detested Chancellor Bethmann-Hollweg for dragging his feet about total and submarine warfare. Colonel Bauer and the Crown Prince rushed to Berlin to block this peril.

The crisis was resolved when the monarchist parties voted no confidence in Bethmann-Hollweg, who resigned. Ludendorff and Bauer wanted to replace both the kaiser and chancellor by a dictator, but Hindenburg would not agree.

The resolution became advantageous in August when the Pope called for peace. The German response cited the resolution to finesse specific questions like those about the future of Belgium.

The industrialists opposed Groener's advocacy of an excess profits tax and insistence that workers take a part in company management.

Hindenburg's 70th birthday was celebrated lavishly all over Germany, 2 October was a public holiday, an honor that until then had been reserved only for the Kaiser.

With God's help our German strength has withstood the tremendous attack of our enemies, because we were one, because each gave his all gladly.

So it must stay to the end. Take no thought for what is to be after the war! This only brings despondency into our ranks and strengthens the hopes of the enemy.

Trust that Germany will achieve what she needs to stand there safe for all time, trust that the German oak will be given air and light for its free growth.

Muscles tensed, nerves steeled, eyes front! We see before us the aim: Germany honored, free and great! God will be with us to the end!

Bavarian mountain warfare expert von Dellmensingen was sent to assess the Austro-Hungarian defenses in Italy, which he found poor.

Then he scouted for a site from which an attack could be mounted against the Italians. Hindenburg created a new Fourteenth Army with ten Austro-Hungarian and seven German divisions and enough airplanes to control the air, commanded by Otto von Below.

The attack began during the night when the defender's trenches in the valley were abruptly shrouded in a dense cloud of poison gas released from canisters fired simultaneously from simple mortars.

The defenders fled before their masks would fail. The artillery opened fire several hours later, hitting the Italian reinforcements hastening up to fill the gap.

The attackers swept over the almost empty defenses and marched through the pass, while mountain troops cleared the heights on either side.

The Italians fled west, too fast to be cut off. Entente divisions were rushed to Italy to stem the retreat by holding a line on the Piave River.

In the negotiations with the Soviet Government, Hindenburg wanted to retain control of all Russian territory that the Central Powers occupied, with German grand dukes ruling Courland and Lithuania , as well as a large slice of Poland.

Their Polish plan was opposed by Foreign Minister Richard von Kühlmann , who encouraged the kaiser to listen to the views of Max Hoffmann, chief of staff on the Eastern Front.

Hoffmann demurred but when ordered argued that it would be a mistake bring so many Slavs into Germany, when only a small slice of Poland was needed to improve defenses.

When the Soviets refused the terms offered at Brest-Litovsk the Germans repudiated the armistice and in a week occupied the Baltic States, Belarus and Ukraine, which had signed the treaty as a separate entity.

Now the Russians signed also. Hindenburg helped to force Kühlmann out in July In January more than half a million workers went on strike, among their demands was a peace without annexations.

The strike collapsed when its leaders were arrested, the labor press suppressed, strikers in the reserve called for active duty, and seven great industrial concerns were taken under military control, which put their workers under martial law.

The Germans were unable to tender a plausible peace offer because OHL insisted on controlling Belgium and retaining the French coalfields.

All of the Central Power's cities were on the brink of starvation and their armies were on short rations, Hindenburg realized that "empty stomachs prejudiced all higher impulses and tended to make men indifferent.

Hundreds of thousands of men were needed to hold and police these conquests. More Germans were in Macedonia and in Palestine, where the British were driving north; Falkenhayn was replaced by Otto Liman von Sanders , who had led the defense of Gallipoli.

All Hindenburg required was that these fronts stand firm while the Germans won in the west, where now they outnumbered their opponents. He firmly believed that his opponents could be crushed by battlefield defeats regardless of their far superior resources.

Offensive tactics were tailored to the defense. Their opponents were adopting defense in depth. He would attack the British because they were less skillful than the French.

However, winter mud prevented action there until April. Consequently, their first attack, named Michael, was on the southern part of the British line, at a projecting British salient near Saint-Quentin.

Schwerpunkts would hit on either side of the salient's apex to pocket its defenders, the V Corps, as an overwhelming display of German power.

Additional troops and skilled commanders, like von Hutier, were shifted from the east, Army Group von Gallwitz was formed in the west on 1 February.

One quarter of the western divisions were designated for attack; to counter the elastic defense during the winter each of them attended a four-week course on infiltration tactics.

As always surprise was essential, so the artillery was slipped into attack positions at night, relying on camouflage for concealment; the British aerial photographers were allowed free rein before D-day.

There would be no preliminary registration fire, the gunners were trained for map firing in schools established by Bruchmüller. In the short, intense bombardment each gun fired in a precise sequence, shifting back and forth between different targets, using many gas shells to keep defenders immersed in a toxic cloud.

On D-day, the air force would establish air supremacy and machine gun enemy strong points, also updating commanders on how far the attackers had penetrated.

Signal lamps were used for messaging on the ground. Headquarters moved close to the front and as soon as possible would advance to pre-selected positions in newly occupied ground.

OHL moved to Spa, Belgium while Hindenburg and Ludendorff were closer to the attack at Avesnes, France , which re-awoke his memories of occupied France 41 years before.

Operation Michael struck on 21 March. The first day's reports were inconclusive, but by day two they knew they had broken through some of the enemy artillery lines.

But the encirclement failed because British stoutness gave V Corps time to slip out of the targeted salient. On day four they were moving on into open country when the kaiser prematurely celebrated by pinning the iron cross with sun's rays on Hindenburg's tunic, the first recipient since the medal was created for von Blücher.

South of the salient they had almost destroyed the British Fifth Army, so they pushed west to cut between the French and British Armies, but did not succeed because they advanced too slowly through the thrashed terrain of the former Somme battlefields and the ground devastated when withdrawing the year before and because troops stopped to loot food and clothing — hence they never broke through the Entente's fluid defensive line, manned by troops brought up and supplied by rail and motor transport.

The Allied command was dismayed. What was even more serious was that it was perceived that the enemy's power was due to a thing that cannot be improvised, the training of officers and men.

Prolonging Michael with the drive west delayed and weakened the attack in Flanders. Again they broke through, smashing the Portuguese defenders and forcing the British from all of the ground they had paid so dearly for in However French support enabled the British to save Hazebrouck , the rail junction that was the German goal.

To draw the French reserves away from Flanders, the next attack was along the Aisne River where Nivelle had attacked the year before. Their success was dazzling.

The defender's front was immersed in a gas cloud fired from simple mortars, [] within hours they had reoccupied all the ground the French had taken by weeks of grinding, and they continued to sweep south through Champagne until they halted for resupply at the Marne River.

Hindenburg had lost , of his best men between March and the end of July, while their foe's ranks were swelling with Americans. His dwindling stock of horses were on the verge of starvation and his ragged men thought continually of food.

One of the most effective propaganda handbills the British showered on the German lines listed the rations received by prisoners of war.

His troops bridled at their officer's rations and reports of the ample meals at headquarters, in his memoirs Ludendorff devotes six pages to defending officer's rations and perks.

Tens of thousands of men were skulking behind the lines. Determined to win, he decided to expand the salient pointing toward Paris to strip more defenders from Flanders.

The attack on General Henri Gouraud's French Fourth Army followed the now familiar scenario but was met by a deceptive elastic defense and was decisively repelled at the French main line of resistance.

The German defense was halfhearted. Hindenburg went on the defensive, withdrawing one by one from the salients created by their victories, evacuating their wounded and supplies and retiring to shortened lines.

He hoped to hold a line until their enemies were ready to bargain. Since their retreat from the Marne, Ludendorff had been distraught, shrieking orders and often in tears.

Most disquieting was that some German commanders surrendered their units and that reserves arriving at the front were taunted for prolonging the war.

For Ludendorff Amiens was the "black day in the history of the German Army". His breakdown is not mentioned in Hindenburg's or Ludendorff's memoirs.

On 29 September Hindenburg and Ludendorff told the incredulous kaiser that the war was lost and that they must have an immediate armistice.

A new chancellor, Prince Maximilian of Baden , opened negotiations with President Woodrow Wilson , who would deal only with a democratic Germany.

Prince Max told the kaiser that he would resign unless Ludendorff was dismissed, but that Hindenburg was indispensable to hold the army together.

On 26 October the Kaiser slated Ludendorff before curtly accepting his resignation — then rejecting Hindenburg's. Afterwards, Ludendorff refused to share Hindenburg's limousine.

Hindenburg promptly replaced Ludendorff with Groener, now chief of staff of Army Group Kiev , which was assisting a breakaway Ukrainian government to fend off the Bolsheviks while expropriating food and oil.

Another brilliant appointment — a topnotch soldier who had worked with the social democratic politicians who were coming to the fore.

They were losing their allies. On 24 October the Italians crossed the river in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto , after a few days of resolute resistance the defense collapsed, weakened by the defection of men from the empire's subject nations and starvation: In September the Entente and their Greek allies attacked in Macedonia.

The Bulgarians begged for more Germans to stiffen their troops, but Hindenburg had none to spare. Many Bulgarian soldiers deserted as they retreated toward home, opening the road to Constantinople.

The Ottomans were overextended, trying to defend Syria while exploiting the Russian collapse to move into the Caucasus , advancing through Armenia and Georgia intending to take over Muslim lands, despite Hindenburg's urging them to defend what they had.

The British and Arabs broke through in September, capturing Damascus. The Armistice of Mudros was signed on 30 October. Wilson insisted that the kaiser must go, but he refused to abdicate, he was determined to lead the Prussian Army home to suppress the growing rebellion , which had started with large demonstrations in major cities and then, when the navy ordered a sortie to battle the British, mutineers led by workers' and soldiers' councils took control of the navy, these councils spread rapidly throughout Germany.

They stripped officers of their badges of rank and decorations, if necessary forcibly. On 8 November Hindenburg told the kaiser that 39 regimental officers had been brought to Spa; where he delivered a situation report and answered questions.

The answers were decisive: The kaiser gave in, superfluously because in Berlin Prince Max had already publicly announced his abdication, his own resignation, and that the Social Democrat leader Friedrich Ebert was now chancellor.

Democracy came abruptly and almost bloodlessly. That evening Groener telephoned Ebert, who he knew and trusted, to tell him that if the new government would fight Bolshevism and support the Army then the field marshal would lead a disciplined army home.

The withdrawal became more fraught when the armistice obliged all German troops to leave Belgium, France and Alsace Lorraine in 14 days and to be behind the Rhine in 30 days.

Stragglers would become prisoners. When the seven men from the executive committee of the soldiers' council formed at Spa arrived at OHL they were greeted politely by a lieutenant colonel, who acknowledged their leadership.

When they broached the march home he took them to the map room, explaining allocation of roads, scheduling unit departures, billeting and feeding.

They agreed that the existing staffs should make these arrangements. They were greeted by the chairman of the workers' and soldiers' council's who proclaimed that: Hindenburg refused because they did not have the kaiser's permission, instead settling into a humble inn, thereby pleasing both his monarchist staff and the revolutionary masses.

In the west 1. Hindenburg did not want to involve the army in the defense of the new government against their civil enemies. Instead they manned independent Freikorps modeled on formations used in the Napoleonic wars , supplying them with weapons and equipment.

In February OHL moved east to Kolberg to mount an offensive against impinging Soviet troops, but they were restrained by the Allied occupation administration, which in May ordered all German troops in the east home.

Hindenburg retired to Hanover [1] once again on 25 June to a splendid new villa, which was a gift of the city, despite admittedly having "lost the greatest war in history".

He failed to win because once through they were too slow—legs could not move quite fast enough.

Surprisingly, Hindenburg has undergone a historical metamorphosis: The OHL officers who testified before the Reichstag committee investigating the collapse of agreed that Hindenburg was always in command.

In addition Ludendorff overrated himself, repressing repeated demonstrations that he lacked the backbone essential to command.

Without knocking I entered Ludendorff's office and found him loudly arguing with the field marshal. I assumed it was over the situation at the Seventh Army.

In any case as soon as I entered the field marshall asked me to give my assessment of the situation at the Seventh Army. I described it in short terms and emphasized especially that based on my own observations I thought the condition of the troops was cause for serious concern.

For the past few days the Seventh Army commanding general, the staff, and I had all been recommending a withdrawal from the increasingly untenable front lines.

I told Hindenburg that I had come to Avesenes with the concurrence of the Seventh Army commanding general to secure such an order. The field marshall turned to Ludendorff, saying something to the effect of 'Now Ludendorff, make sure that the order goes out immediately.

Hindenburg's record as a commander starting in the field at Tannenberg, then leading four national armies, culminating with breaking the trench deadlock in the west, and then holding his defeated army together, is unmatched by any other soldier in World War I.

However, military skill should not mask the other component of their record: The new republic held its first election on 19 January Parties representing a broad range of different constituencies ran candidates and voting was with proportional representation, so inevitably governments were formed by coalitions of parties: Ebert was elected as provisional chancellor; then the elected representatives assembled in Weimar to write a constitution.

It was based on the Constitution of the German Empire written in , with many of the kaiser's powers now given to a president elected for a term of seven years.

The president selected the chancellor and the members of the cabinet, but with the crucial stipulation that his nominees had to be ratified by the Reichstag , which because of proportional representation required support from several parties.

The constitution was adopted on 11 August Ebert was elected as provisional president. Early in the Allies ordered the German Army to keep troops in Latvia and Lithuania to assist in repelling the Bolsheviks.

The terms of the Treaty of Versailles were written in secret. It was unveiled on 7 May , on the fourth anniversary of the sinking of the Lusitania.

It was followed by an ultimatum: While Germans of all political shades cursed the treaty as an insult to the nation's honor, President Ebert was sober enough to consider the possibility that Germany would not be in a position to turn it down.

To save face, he asked Hindenburg whether the army was prepared to defend against an Allied invasion from the west, which Ebert believed would be all but certain if the treaty were voted down.

If there was even the slightest chance that the army could hold out, he promised to urge rejection of the treaty. Under some prodding from his chief of staff, Groener, Hindenburg concluded the army could not resume the war under any circumstances.

Rather than tell Ebert himself, he directed Groener to deliver the army's recommendation to the president. Back in Hanover, as a field marshal he was provided with a staff who helped with his still extensive correspondence.

He made few formal public appearances, but the streets around his house often were crowded with admirers when he took his afternoon walk. During the war he had left the newspaper reporters to Ludendorff, now he was available.

He hunted locally and elsewhere, including an annual chamois hunt in Bavaria. The yearly Tannenberg memorial celebration kept him in the public eye.

A Berlin publisher urged him to produce his memoirs which could educate and inspire by emphasizing his ethical and spiritual values; his story and ideas could be put on paper by a team of anonymous collaborators and the book would be translated immediately for the worldwide market.

Major themes were the need for Germany to maintain a strong military as the school teaching young German men moral values and the need to restore the monarchy, because only under the leadership of the House of Hohenzollern could Germany become great again, with "The conviction that the subordination of the individual to the good of the community was not only a necessity, but a positive blessing He concealed his cultural interests and assured his readers: Hindenburg's son and two son-in-laws came though the war unscathed — Ludendorff had lost two beloved stepsons and Ebert two sons.

The Treaty required the German army to have no more than , men and abolished the General Staff.

Therefore, in March The Reichswehr was organized. The , armed men in Germany competed for the limited places. The chief of staff was Seeckt, camouflaged as Chief of the Troop Office.

He favored staff officers above line officers and the proportion of nobles was the same as prewar.

In , Hindenburg was subpoenaed to appear before the parliamentary commission investigating the responsibility for the outbreak of war in and for the defeat in They had been strangers since Ludendorff's dismissal, but they prepared and arrived together on 18 November Hindenburg refused to take the oath until Ludendorff was permitted to read a statement that they were under no obligation to testify since their answers might expose them to criminal prosecution, but they were waving their right of refusal.

On the stand Hindenburg read through a prepared statement, ignoring the chairman's repeated demands that he answer questions. Reviews in the German press that grossly misrepresented General Frederick Barton Maurice's book about the last months of the war firmed-up this myth.

The first presidential election was scheduled for 6 June Hindenburg wrote to Wilhelm II, in exile in the Netherlands, for permission to run.

Five days later Berlin was seized by regular and Freicorp troops led by General Lüttwitz, the commander of the Berlin garrison, who proclaimed a prominent civil servant, Wolfgang Kapp , president in a new government.

Ludendorff and Max Bauer stood by Kapp's side. The legal government fled without attempting any forceful response; a general strike paralyzed the nation so after six days the putsch collapsed.

It was followed by a Bolshevik uprising that was put down forcefully. Kapp died in prison while awaiting trial, Ludendorff fled to Bavaria where he was shielded by his fame, Bauer went into exile.

The Reichstag canceled the election and extended Ebert's term of office until 25 June Hindenburg cut back on public appearances.

His serenity was shattered by the illness of his wife Gertrud , who died of cancer on 14 May He kept close to his three children, their spouses and his nine grandchildren.

His son Oskar was at his side as the field marshal's liaison officer. Germany's travails seemed unending. The national resources were drained by reparations payments, while tax income did not match expenditures.

The gap was met by printing money without backing. In inflation began to accelerate, the fall in value became exponential.

Savings were wiped away, wage earners survived with daily payments of more and more marks, which they rushed to spend before prices shot up further.

Landowners paid off mortgages for a song and clever entrepreneurs with assets borrowed money to buy property from those who had to sell to survive.

Hindenburg was sustained by a fund set up by a group of admiring industrialists. On 8 November Hitler, with Ludendorff at his side, launched the Beer Hall Putsch in Munich, which was bloodily suppressed by the police.

Hindenburg was not involved but inevitably was prominent in newspaper reports. He issued a statement urging national unity. Twelve zeros were cut from prices, which stabilized.

The political divisions in the nation began to ease. His goal was to restore Germany to its prewar status, but as a master of diplomacy he worked quietly a step at a time, first gaining Allied trust by ending the passive resistance to their occupation of the Ruhr.

In the economy was shored up by the reduction in reparation payments in the Dawes Plan with loans from American banks.

At Tannenberg in August before a crowd of 50, Hindenburg laid the headstone for an imposing memorial for the crucial German victory.

Reichpräsident Ebert died on 28 February following an appendectomy. A new election had to be held within a month. None of the candidates attained the required majority, Ludendorff was last with a paltry , votes.

By law there had to be another election. The Social Democrats, the Catholic Centre and other democratic parties united to support the Centre's Wilhelm Marx , who had twice served as chancellor and was now Minister President of Prussia.

The Communists insisted on running their own candidate. The parties on the right established a committee to select their strongest candidate.

After a week's indecision they decided on Hindenburg, despite his advanced age and fear, notably by Foreign Minister Stresemann, of unfavorable reactions by their former enemies.

A delegation came to his home on 1 April. He stated his reservations but concluded "If you feel that my election is necessary for the sake of the Fatherland, I'll run in God's name.

Not willing to be humiliated like Ludendorff he drafted a telegram declining the nomination, but before it was sent Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz and a young leader of the East German agrarian nobility arrived in Hanover to persuade him to wait until the strength of his support was clearer.

His conservative opponents gave way so he consented on 9 April. Again he obtained Wilhelm II's approval.

His campaign stressed his devotion to "social justice, religious equality, genuine peace at home and abroad. He took office on 12 May , " Always a stickler about uniforms, soon the servants had new regalia with the shoe buckles appropriate for a court.

The president also enjoyed a shooting preserve. He notified Chancellor Hans Luther that he would replace the head of Ebert's Presidential staff, Dr Otto Meissner , with his own man, because the cabinet would have to consent.

Meissner was kept on temporarily. He proved invaluable and was Hindenburg's right hand throughout his presidency.

Foreign Minister Stresemann had vacationed during the campaign so as not to tarnish his reputation with the victors by supporting the field marshal.

Hotel is centrally located very close to Duomo and other tourists attractions. Offering a furnished patio, the Lavagnini Residence is in Florence.

It is a minute walk from the Fortezza da Basso congress center. Very friendly and accommodating had a great time. Featuring panoramic views of Florence and the Arno River, Portrait Firenze offers luxurious rooms with handcrafted furniture.

This hotel is 98 feet from the famous Ponte Vecchio bridge. Ideally located across from the Ponte Vecchio and along the Arno, the hotel provides a calming, Upon arrival we were treated so well by the front desk staff, they were so pleasant and helpful Domux Home Repubblica offers luxurious studio and apartments with free Wi-Fi.

It is on the last floor of the historic Palazzo Levi, important building in Florence's Piazza della Repubblica. I can't say enough great things about this place.

Location is the best in the city, a few meters from Il Duomo. Place enjoys superb panoramic views from its rooftop terrace.

Wonderful boutique hotel from top to bottom!! Attentive staff great coffee!! Al Palazzo del Marchese di Camugliano is set in a 16th-century building with original frescoes and a charming internal garden.

This hotel in Florence has been booked times. Best-known for the stunning Duomo, Florence is full of amazing buildings and its historic center.

The Ponte Vecchio, a 14th-century bridge holding a multitude of shops on its edges is a stunning example and provides a truly unforgettable view.

For great dining, the Santa Croce district has countless options and the unique lampredotto is Florentine fast-food with a year old history.

Many consider the local gelato, Italian ice-cream, to be the best in the world. The beauty and flavours of Florence are just a minute train ride from the Amerigo Vespucci International Airport.

Please enter a valid email address. An error has occurred. Your welcome email will arrive in your inbox soon. Florence is one of the most beautiful historical cities in the World!

Besides the Uffizzi Gallery tne number 1 in Renaissance art ; the sun setting over the Arno, seen from the Piazzalle Michelangelo; the delicious Bisteca Fiorentina; the wonderful galleries of small restaurants and different kinds of food on the first floor balcony of the Central Market open until THe hotel has an incredible location, just 3 minutes walking to Il Duomo and the Batistero!

It is located just in front of the most glamurous street in town: The rooms are beautiful; comfortable and cozy. The hotel staff is wonderful!

Always ready and happy to help, and always with a smile. One thing though you have to be prepared for, if you are coming to Florence downtown by car Parking the hotel indicates a garage service, and your car will be ready just after 30 minutes of a request is expensive.

The city of Florence is very beautiful I will definitely come back with my friends one day. I found a nice hotel in there Hotel Minerva near the church but I bet that is very expensive!!

I am an average traveller on a budget I like hotel not cheap but not expensive. One of our friends met us there and brought us to an Aperifif? It was just an overnight stay, we were just passing through to go to Pisa, Italy.

Florence is beautiful but need more time to enjoy the place, had no chance to visit the museum, but my overall trip was fantastic definitely I will come back one day.

What don't I love about you? As a historian of the Renaissance, I find treasures on every corner. Close to the train station and only a few blocks from the Duomo, this one-star hotel is close to good restaurants and really has all you need.

We had two nights and then drove to Cinque Terre before returning for another 3 nights. We loved the variety of Florence.

There was so much to do. Try hiring cycles and heading to Signa. It's about 10km away along a great bike track alongside the river.

Once there you can relax around an outside pool. You do have to pay but we had a lovely day there. Don't forget your bathing cap though or you'll have to buy one.

Obica is a lovely place to dine and reasonably priced. SO much to say but a lot can be found in guide books or any helpful hotel receptionist will offer suggestions.

We stayed at Hotel del Corso with lovely Chiara and then for our return stay we were at the Pendini with a good view of the carousel in the piazza below and also the Duomo a few streets away.

Good for two or three days. Some churches and some other things to visit Be careful that some places are very expensive to visit.

There was one church for example, where I paid 6 euros, entered, and there was just one small room to visit First sunday of the month, some places are free to access such as the Boboli bubble garden.

If you go there on the first sunday, you can save quite a few euros or entrance fee. On the street of Hotel Rex about meters from the hotel on that street, there is a very cheap place to buy magnets for 1 euros, and other souvenirs for 1,2, or 3 euros.

The cheapest place that I have found. Check out Alberto Cozzi for handmade paper products and Peruzzi is definitely the place to go for leather goods.

It's the best if you want to get up close to a sight, jump off for awhile, and then hop on the next bus.

Saves a lot in cab expenses. Go to the Piazzale Michelangelo for the best view overlooking all of Florence. The hotel I stayed at, the Hotel Berchielli, was reasonable in price, has wonderful staff, and a great location 1 block from the Ponte Vecchio.

There are lots of stalls everywhere in the city selling everything from tourist souvenirs to leather goods. However, I would not buy leather goods at any of these places, as I was told by multiple sources, that they came from China and were not made in Italy.

Great vacation, lots to see, and I enjoyed every minute of it. From arrival to departure she has been beyond helpful and accommodating.

We took the upgrade for the upstairs room, and even though you would properly wake early due to sunlight, the rest of my trip in Italy I missed this kind of balcony with this kind of view.

Breakfast on the small patio is a must and do yourself a favor and enjoy a glass of wine and view the city by night. Staying with Anna has made my experience in Italy so much more pleased and warm.

Definitely one of the best finds in Florence! The hotel is in a quite nice area. The rooms are very clean with a dressing room and a very nice bathroom.

Beds are are comfortable. The staff is amazingly friendly and plotted for us all the important attractions on a map that helped us to navigate almost everything in one day.

Breakfast is the best we had in Italy so far as a hotel breakfast. There is a free parking next to the hotel if you are coming by car, we left out car 1 night for free.

Friendly and warm-hearted staff. The breakfast was very delicious and Various. The room was very clean and cozy it is the best experience in the whole trip in Italy.

The friendly staff showed us patiently the way to visit the whole Florence city and the best restaurant. How to Write an Item Listener gives general information about implementing item listeners.

The combo box itself fires high-level events such as action events. Its subcomponents fire low-level events such as mouse, key, and focus events.

The low-level events and the subcomponent that fires them are look-and-feel-dependent. To avoid writing look-and-feel-dependent code, you should listen only for high-level events on a compound component such as a combo box.

For information about events, including a discussion about high- and low-level events, refer to Writing Event Listeners. Here's a picture of a demo application that uses an editable combo box to enter a pattern with which to format dates.

The following code, taken from ComboBoxDemo2. This code is very similar to the previous example, but warrants a few words of explanation. The bold line of code explicitly turns on editing to allow the user to type values in.

This is necessary because, by default, a combo box is not editable. This particular example allows editing on the combo box because its menu does not provide all possible date formatting patterns, just shortcuts to frequently used patterns.

An editable combo box fires an action event when the user chooses an item from the menu and when the user types Enter.

Note that the menu remains unchanged when the user enters a value into the combo box. If you want, you can easily write an action listener that adds a new item to the combo box's menu each time the user types in a unique value.

See Internationalization to learn more about formatting dates and other types of data. A combo box uses a renderer to display each item in its menu.

If the combo box is uneditable, it also uses the renderer to display the currently selected item. An editable combo box, on the other hand, uses an editor to display the selected item.

A renderer for a combo box must implement the ListCellRenderer interface. A combo box's editor must implement ComboBoxEditor.

This section shows how to provide a custom renderer for an uneditable combo box. The default renderer knows how to render strings and icons.

If you put other objects in a combo box, the default renderer calls the toString method to provide a string to display.

You can customize the way a combo box renders itself and its items by implementing your own ListCellRenderer. Alternatively, to compile and run the example yourself, consult the example index.

The full source code for this example is in CustomComboBoxDemo. To get the image files it requires, consult the example index.

The following statements from the example create an instance of ComboBoxRenderer a custom class and set up the instance as the combo box's renderer:.

The last line sets the combo box's maximum row count, which determines the number of items visible when the menu is displayed. If the number of items in the combo box is larger than its maximum row count, the menu has a scroll bar.

The icons are pretty big for a menu, so our code limits the number of rows to 3. Here's the implementation of ComboBoxRenderer , a renderer that puts an icon and text side-by-side:.

As a ListCellRenderer , ComboBoxRenderer implements a method called getListCellRendererComponent , which returns a component whose paintComponent method is used to display the combo box and each of its items.

The easiest way to display an image and an icon is to use a label. So ComboBoxRenderer is a subclass of label and returns itself.

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